Two most spoken languages of Bhutan are Dzongkha and Nepali. Dzongkha, the national language of Bhutan, is spoken in most parts of Bhutan, while Nepal is mainly used by the people of southern region, for most of them have their roots Nepal.
Dzongkha and English
Dzongkha is an offshoot of Tibetan language. Meaning of Dzongkha is the language spoken in the dzong. It does match to Tibetan in some ways, but uses different style of scripting. Most people related to tourism industry can understand and speak English. In schools too, English is used to teach subjects such as mathematics, science and geography. Several local dilects are used in central and eastern parts of Bhutan. Study of Dzongkha is compulsory in all schools of Bhutan. The number of dialects listed in Bhutan is 24. All of these dialects are living.
Many sounds in Dzongkha language do not have a match in the English language. It is difficult to write the exact pronunciation in English. But most consonants in Dzongkha language are pronounced in same manner as in English.
Bhutan is the only country in the world to have adopted Mahayana Buddhism in its Tantric form as its official religion. The Buddhist faith has played and continues to play a fundamental role in the cultural, ethical and sociological development of country and its people. Monks are held in great respect and play an active part in community life.
Influence of Tantric Buddhism
The influence of Tantric Buddhism since the mid 7th century has irrevocably shaped Kingdom’s history and destiny, and has had an indelible and enlightening impact on the Bhutanese way of life. It affect almost everything ; from arts and crafts to the system of government, from folk dances to architectural style. To this day also, the importance and relevance of Buddhism has not waned and Buddhist values and traditions still permeates every aspect of the Bhutanese culture and ethos.
Role of Dzongs
To ensure predominance of Buddhism in the state, one person from each family usually attends monastic school. Dzongs are the centers of administration and governance for the entire valley. They play an important role in maintaining the social structure of the country.